* Across 2000 cities in india* 100% cashback is valid only for the first booking.(view details)



LETSDOC DIET PROFILE (1 Plus 1)
89 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

An exclusive package which is one of the most comprehensive and relevant blood and urine test package. This package covers all the major health parameters that can be tested with blood and urine samples, like Vitamins, Thyroid, Cholesterol, Kidney function, Blood Sugar, Liver Function, Urine Analysis and more. The package has been created after feedback from over 1500 doctors and nutritionists and consists of all the most commonly suggested health tests. Apart from regular health analysis this package is recommended in case you plan to get on any kind of a diet. The input of the health parameters covered in this package will assist your dietitian to customize the diet better for your needs and your body.

₹4570 ₹3000

LETSDOC SPECIAL OFFER
78 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Book now and get tests for 2 individuals at the price of 1. A comprehensive health test that covers 78 vital health parameters like sugar, cholesterol, thyroid, liver function, kidney function, complete urine analysis and more.

₹2690 ₹1750

AAROGYAM 20Y PROFILE
72 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

A multidisciplinary profile which would help in health screening and diagnosis of arthritis, anemia and folic acid deficiency.

₹4800 ₹2400

Pro Aarogyam 1.2
64 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

A comprehensive health test package, that checks for thyroid, diabetes, iron deficiency, liver functioning, cholesterol and lipid profiles, and other blood tests to help determine the status of your health.

₹1600 ₹1000

Pro Aarogyam 1.3 @1400
68 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

This profile covers series of tests for preventing risks arising from nutritional deficiencies, lifestyle and metabolic disorders like diabetes, cardiac arrest, hepatic and renal disorder. Comprehensive profile for those who want to get their preventive health checkup done.

₹4800 ₹1400

Lets Doc Pro Aa1.7
86 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

A multidisciplinary profile which would help in health screening and diagnosis of arthritis, anemia and folic acid deficiency.

₹3800 ₹2400

THYROID PROFILE (T3T4TSH)
3 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Included tests to evaluate levels of thyroid hormones essential to determine the functioning of the thyroid gland.

₹420 ₹300

THYROID PANEL 3
6 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

The most comprehensive thyroid panel with advanced tests.

₹1220 ₹900

DIABETES PANEL 1
29 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

To help our users keep a frequent track of diabetes new package have been introduced which start from as low as Rs.400 only.

₹600 ₹400

DIABETES PANEL 2
37 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

To help our users keep a frequent track of diabetes and cholesterol levels, new package have been introduced which start from as low as Rs.700 only.

₹1100 ₹700

DIABETES PANEL 3
38 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

To help our users keep a frequent track of diabetes, cholesterol levels and UALB levels, new packages have been introduced which start from as low as Rs.900 only.

₹1520 ₹900

VITAMIN PANEL 1
29 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

To help our users keep a frequent track of Vitamin D deficiency new packages have been introduced which start from as low as Rs.620 only.

₹800 ₹620

VITAMIN PANEL 2
30 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

To help our users keep a frequent track of Vitamin D and B12 deficiency new packages have been introduced which start from as low as Rs.860 only.

₹1220 ₹860

VITAMIN PANEL 3
31 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

To help our users keep a frequent track of Vitamin D and B12 deficiency and TSH levels, new packages have been introduced which start from as low as Rs.900 only.

₹1360 ₹900

THYROID PANEL 2
3 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Advanced Thyroid tests including FT3 and FT4

₹580 ₹450

HEALTHSCREEN M-NEW
33 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

A profile which is used for screening diabetes, thyroid disorders and complete blood screening to evaluate overall health.

₹900 ₹600

HEALTHSCREEN A-NEW
72 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

A comprehensive health test package, that checks for thyroid, diabetes, iron deficiency, liver functioning, cholesterol and lipid profiles, and other blood tests to help determine the status of your health.

₹3980 ₹1500

HEALTHSCREEN B-NEW
76 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

This profile covers series of tests for preventing risks arising from nutritional deficiencies, lifestyle and metabolic disorders like diabetes, cardiac arrest, hepatic and renal disorder. Comprehensive profile for those who want to get their preventive health checkup done.

₹5500 ₹2400

LIPID PROFILE
8 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

A panel of tests which include total cholestrol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides, etc. for screening the risk for development of cardiovascular diseases.

₹500 ₹500

LIVER FUNCTION TESTS
11 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

A group of tests that help in assessing the efficiency of the liver functioning and diagnosing its damage and associated diseases.

₹600 ₹600

ARTHRITIS PROFILE - C
75 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Tests done to determine the type of arthritis by determining RF or ANA factor and risks related to it.

₹5100 ₹5100

VITAMIN PROFILE
5 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

This profile includes bio-markers that aid in determining bone health, thyroid as well as iron status which in totality provide an overall picture of health.

₹1300 ₹1300

VITAMIN D PROFILE
3 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Vitamin D is essential for building strong bones, teeth and in maintaining a efficient immune system. Estimation of vitamin D (25-OH) helps in determining the risk factors for osteoporosis.

₹1100 ₹1100

PREGNANCY PROFILE - A
65 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Set of preventive tests for screening infectious diseases, detecting of genetic abnormalities, multiple gestations and pregnancy risks of expecting mothers and their newborns.

₹2000 ₹1575

PREGNANCY PROFILE - B
78 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Set of preventive tests for screening infectious diseases, detecting of genetic abnormalities, multiple gestations and pregnancy risks of expecting mothers and their newborns.

₹2900 ₹2250

PREGNANCY PROFILE - M
61 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Set of preventive tests for screening infectious diseases, detecting of genetic abnormalities, multiple gestations and pregnancy risks of expecting mothers and their newborns.

₹1300 ₹1050

CHILDREN NUTRITION AND TOXICITY PROFILE
74 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Determines the health of your child and also identifies any deficiency or toxicity in your child's body.

₹2700 ₹2700

ARTHRITIS PROFILE - M
63 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Tests done to determine the type of arthritis by determining RF or ANA factor and risks related to it.

₹1700 ₹1700

TSH-LH-FSH-PRL
4 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

The combined estimation of TSH-LH-FSH-PRL is essential to diagnose infertility in females. Abnormality in levels of these hormones may lead to infertility.

₹700 ₹700

Pro Aarogyam Basic
11 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Pro Aarogyam Basic by Thyrocare is a basic health checkup which includes 11 tests and 3 profiles. This is a basic package from Thyrocare and tests for some issues like diabetes, thyroid function and toxicity.

₹1000 ₹700

Pro Aarogyam 1.1
34 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

This profile is an array of tests and profiles dedicated to study the overall organ health. This helps in ensuring that the functioning of our body system is optimum and also gives a chance for identifying possible heart risks.

₹1200 ₹850

Pro Anaemia Profile
48 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

An array of tests which include screening of folate, vitamin B12, hemoglobin, etc. which help in detecting anemia.

₹2400 ₹1850

Pro Arthritis Profile
57 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Tests done to determine the type of arthritis by determining RF or ANA factor and risks related to it.

₹3000 ₹2200

Pro Aarogyam Plus
14 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Pro Aarogyam Plus by Thyrocare is a basic health checkup which includes 14 tests and 4 profiles. It checks for some basic issues that may be prevalent in the body.

₹1500 ₹900

ARTHRITIS PROFILE - A
67 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Tests done to determine the type of arthritis by determining RF or ANA factor and risks related to it.

₹2900 ₹2900

ARTHRITIS PROFILE - B
73 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Tests done to determine the type of arthritis by determining RF or ANA factor and risks related to it.

₹3900 ₹3900

17 OH PROGESTERONE
17-Hydroxyprogesterone, 17-OHP , 17OH tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

HEV infection is also called as enterically transmitted non-A non-B hepatitis (ET-NANB), epidemic non-A non-B hepatitis, faecal-oral non-A non-B hepatitis, A-like non A non B hepatitis

Characteristics:

Single stranded positive sense RNA, non-enveloped, 27-34 nm, resembling calicivirusesandtogaviruses (rubella virus)

₹900 ₹650

25-OH VITAMIN D (TOTAL)
25-Hydroxy Vitamin D Test , VITDC tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

The total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VitD) level (the sum of 25-OH-vitamin D2 and 25-OH-vitamin D3) is the appropriate indicator of vitamin D body stores. Although there is no universal consensus about a treatment cut point, studies suggest 25 to 35 ng/mL as the minimal concentration of 25-OH-VitD needed to avoid the adverse effects of deficiency.

₹900 ₹400

ALANINE TRANSAMINASE (SGPT)
ALT, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase , SGPT tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

ALT is present in high concentrations in the liver and to a lesser extent in kidney, heart and skeletal muscle, pancreas, spleen and lungs.ALT is more sensitive for the detection of hepatocyte injury than for biliary obstruction. ALT is more specific for liver injury than AST (SGOT). Useful for hepatic cirrhosis, other liver disease. Sensitive to heart failure.Increased levels of ALT however are generally result of liver damage associated with some degree of hepatic necrosis such as cirrhosis, carcinoma, viral or toxic hepatitis and obstructive jaundice.ALT is thought to be a more specific indicator of liver inflammation, since the AST may be elevated in diseases of other organs such as the heart or muscle. In acute liver injury, such as acute viral hepatitis, the ALT may be elevated to a high of 100 or over 1000 U/L.Mild or moderate elevations of ALT and AST are nonspecific and may be caused by a wide range of liver diseases.ALT is more specific for detecting liver disease in non alcoholic asymptomatic patients.

Elevated levels :

  • Hepatitis (viral, autoimmune)
  • Use of hepatotoxic drugs
  • Hepatic (liver) ischemia (blood deficiency)
  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatic tumor
  • Reye syndrome
  • Epstein Barr Virus (EBV)
  • Myocardial Infarction
  • Myocarditis
  • Renal Infarction
  • Pulmonary infarction
  • Severe muscletrauma
  • Dermatomyositis
  • Polymyositis
  • Seizure disorder

₹300 ₹250

ALBUMIN - SERUM
Albumin, blood albumin , SALB tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Antibody developed against hepatitis envelope antigen (HbeAg). Anti-HBe is the second antibody to appear and is associated with the rapid clearance of HBeAg. Later, anti-HBe declines and persists for only a few months or years if there is no active viral replication. If HBeAg is considered a specific marker of infectivity, the presence of anti-HBeAg antibody in blood is recognized to be a clinical sign of recovery from infection to convalescence.

₹300 ₹250

ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE
ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos , ALKP tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

CA19-9 represents the most important and basic carbohydrate tumor marker. Usually very little of CA 19.9 is detectable in the blood of normal individuals. The immunohistologic distribution of CA19-9 in tissues is consistent with the quantitative determination of higher CA19-9 concentrations in cancer than in normal or inflamed tissues. Recently reports indicates that the serum CA19-9 level is frequently elevated in the serum of subjects with various gastrointestinal malignancies, such as pancreatic, colorectal, gastric and hepatic carcinomas. Together with CEA, elevated CA19-9 is suggestive of gallbladder neoplasm in the setting of inflammatory gallbladder disease. This tumor-associated antigen may also be elevated in some non-malignant conditions. Research studies demonstrate that serum CA 19-9 values may have utility in monitoring subjects with the above-mentioned diagnosed malignancies.

It has been shown that a persistent elevation in serum CA19-9 value following treatment may be indicative of occult metastatic and/or residual disease, A persistently rising serum CA 19-9 value may be associated with progressive malignant disease and poor therapeutic response. A declining CA 19-9 value may be indicative of a favourable prognosis and good response to treatment, A group of mucin type glycoprotein Sialosyl Lewis Antigens (SLA), such as CA19^9 and CA19-5, has come to be recognized as circulating cancer-associated antigens for gastrointestinal cancer.

₹500 ₹380

ALPHA FETO PROTEIN (AFP)
Alpha fetoprotein, ?-fetoprotein, alpha 1 fetoprotein, alpha fetoglobulin, alpha fetal protein , AFP tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Elevated in :

  1. Carcinoma of testes, ovaries, biliary tract, stomach or pancreas
  2. Cirrhosis of the liver
  3. Malignant teratoma
  4. Recovery from hepatitis
  5. Ataxia telangiectasia
  6. Hereditary tyrosinemia

During pregnancy, increased levels of AFP may indicate :

  1. Fetal defects
  2. Spina bifida
  3. Anencephaly
  4. Omphalocele
  5. Tetralogy of Fallot
  6. Duodenal atresia
  7. Turner's syndrome
  8. Intrauterine death (usually results in a miscarriage)

₹800 ₹590

AMYLASE
, AMYL tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

This test is primarily performed to diagnose or monitor diseases of the pancreas. It may also reflect gall bladder disease and some gastrointestinal problems.

Elevated levels are seen in

Pancreatic conditions :

  1. Acute pancreatitis
  2. Calculous obstruction of the pancreatic duct
  3. Familial pancreatitis
  4. Chronic pancreatitis

Non-pancreatic conditions :

  1. Acute parotitis
  2. Peritonitis
  3. Small intestine obstruction
  4. Perforated peptic ulcer
  5. Rupture of a tubal pregnancy

₹600 ₹515

ANTI CCP (ACCP)
Anti–citrullinated protein antibodies, ACPA, anti-keratin antibodies, AKA, anti-perinuclear factor, APF , ACCP tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

Anti-CCP antibodies are used for diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), because they:

  • are as sensitive as, and more specific than, IgM rheumatoid factors (RF) in early and fully established disease
  • may predict the eventual development into RA when found in undifferentiated arthritis
  • are a marker of erosive disease in RA
  • may be detected in healthy individuals years before onset of clinical RA
  • ₹1000 ₹685

    ANTI HEPATITIS A VIRUS (Anti HAV) - IgM
    , HAVM tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Levels of antibodies against cardiolipins are found high in several disorders :

    1. Syphilis.
    2. Venous and arterial thrombosis.
    3. Antiphospholipid syndrome.
    4. Livedoid Vasculitis.
    5. Behcet's syndrome.
    6. Spontaneous abortion.
    7. Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus.
    8. Myocardial infarction.
    9. Thrombocytopenia.

    ₹1000 ₹665

    ANTI HEPATITIS B ENVELOPE ANTIGEN (AHBe) -TOTAL
    , AHBE tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    The Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, of which to types are known : type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) which present slight antigenic differences. HSV-1 causes chiefly oral-facial lesions, while HSV-2 is mainly responsible for genital lesions. HSV may also cause a form of ocular cheratitis and lesions of the central nervous system. Psychosocial distress, increased risk of HIV infection, and perinatal transmission are all factors that can complicate this painful disease. Appropriate treatment becomes critical to decreasing morbidity.HSV affects the skin, mucous membranes and, less frequently, the esophagus and brain. Skin infections are usually located in the orolabial, genital, or anorectal areas. Orofacial herpes affects the trigeminal ganglion, whereas genital herpes involves the sacral ganglion.

    Herpes simplex infection generally occurs in two phases: the initial, primary infection, followed by secondary, recurrent disease at the same site. In the first phase, the virus spreads by close person-to-person contact with lesions or mucosal secretions (eg, saliva, cervical discharge) as well as by respiratory droplets. The virus then spreads to regional lymph nodes, causing tender lymphadenopathy. At this point, the lesions are numerous and more scattered than in recurrent disease. Recurrent herpes, in contrast, is milder and of shorter duration than the primary infection. Genital herpes recurs more often than labial herpes, and HSV-2 infection is more likely to recur than HSV-1. HSV-1 HSV-II Transplacental. Sexual transmission. Contacts of infected saliva with active wound. Transplacental.

    Oral secretion Any person who has engaged in sexual activities is at risk for infection with genital herpes. However, a number of factors have been shown to increase the risk of acquiring the disease. The following may increase the risk of becoming infected with genital herpes:

    • Younger age at onset of sexual activity.
    • Female gender: Among heterosexuals, genital herpes is more easily spread from male to female than female to male. However, males still frequently get genital herpes from females.
    • Multiple partners: More sex partners may increase the risk especially if safer sex practices are not always followed.

    ₹800 ₹590

    ANTI HEPATITIS E VIRUS (Anti HEV) - IgM
    , HEVM tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    CMV is a member of the herpes virus group, and most frequently transmitted to a developing child before birth. Once a person becomes infected, the virus remains alive, but usually dormant within that person's body for life. Major areas of concern are (1) the risk of infection to the unborn baby during pregnancy, (2) the risk of infection to people who work with children.

    CMV infection is more widespread in developing countries and in areas of lower socioeconomic conditions.

    Major areas of concern are:

    • The risk of infection to the unborn baby during pregnancy.
    • The risk of infection to people who work with children, and
    • The risk of infection to the immunocompromised person, such as organ transplant recipients and persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    ₹1000 ₹665

    ANTI MICROSOMAL ANTIBODY
    tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Autoimmune thyroid disorders are characterized by the presence of antithyroid antibodies, specifically antithyroglobulin (ATG) and antithyroid peroxidase (microsomal antibodies, or AMA).

    Microsomal antibodies (AMA) are produced in response to microsomes escaping from damaged cells surrounding the thyroid follicle in the thyroid gland. AMA is also known as TPO antibodies(thyroid peroxidase). Such autoantibodies are usually present in Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Grave's disease and probably play a central role in the pathogenesis of that disease. However, they may also be increased in other autoimmune disorders.

    ₹800 ₹600

    ANTI NUCLEAR ANTIBODIES (ANA)
    , ANA tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    The antinuclear antibody (ANA) test is key to the diagnosis of lupus. It may help to tell the difference between lupus and other autoimmune diseases when diagnostic criteria are unclear. See medical history for a list of diagnostic criteria.

    • If a person has 4 or more diagnostic criteria for lupus, the ANA test alone may be enough to make the diagnosis.
    • If a person has 3 criteria (not including a positive ANA test), a positive ANA test may help clarify the diagnosis. A negative ANA test may help rule out lupus.
    • If a person has 2 or fewer criteria, the ANA test is probably not appropriate and may only confuse the issue. Many people who do not have lupus have a positive ANA test.
    A test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA) is done to help:
    • Diagnose Systemic lupus erytheromatosus.
    • Distinguish between SLE and rheumatoid arthritis when the diagnosis is unclear.
    • Diagnose other suspected autoimmune disease.

    ₹650 ₹460

    ANTI STREPTOLYSIN - O
    , ASO tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    • Confirms a recent or ongoing infection with Group streptococcus.
    • Helps diagnose rheumatic fever or a streptococcal infection in the kidneys.
    • Determine whether a person has rheumatoid arthritis or rheumatic fever.
    • Anti streptolysin 0 reaction provides useful information for diagnosis and monitoring of human streptococcal infections such as in tonsillitis, otitis, erysipelas scarlet fever, as well.as connective tissue diseases like rheumatic fever, or glomerulonephritis. This test is a sensitive test for recent streptococcal infection. A rise in titer begins about one week after infection and peaks two to four weeks later. Streptolysin O Antibody (ASO) titer does not rise with cutaneous infections. In the absence of complications or reinfection, the titer will fall to preinfection levels within 6 to 12 months. Over 80% of patients with acute rheumatic fever and 95% of patients with acute glomerulonephritis have elevated titers of ASO.

    Elevated levels of ASO indicate:

    • Active streptococcal infection.
    • Bacterial endocarditis, an inflammation in the lining of the heart.
    • Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, an infection in the kidney.
    • Rheumatic fever, a disease that may affect the heart and kidneys.
    • Scarlet fever, an infection involving the throat and tongue that causes fever, rash, and rapid pulse.

    ₹700 ₹500

    ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE (SGOT )
    AST, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase , SGOT tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    AST is widely distributed with high concentrations in the heart, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and erythrocytes. Damage or disease to any of these tissues such as myocardial infarction, viral hepatitis, liver necrosis, cirrhosis and muscular dystrophy may result in raised levels of AST. Although elevated serum AST is not specific for liver disease, it is used primarily to diagnose and monitor the course of liver disease (in combination with other enzymes such as ALT, ALP, and bilirubin). It has also been used to monitor patients with heart attacks, but it is much less specific than CPK isoenzyme and LDH isoenzyme for this purpose.

    What abnormal results mean :

    Diseases that affect liver cells cause the release of AST. The AST/ALT ratio (with both elevated) is usually greater than 2 in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.

    Increased levels :
    • Acutehemolytic anemia /Acute pancreatitis.
    • Acute renal failure.
    • Hepatic (liver) cirrhosis.
    • Hepatic (liver) necrosis (tissue death).
    • Hepatitis.
    • Infection mononucleosis.
    • Liver cancer.
    • Reye syndrome.
    • Multiple trauma.
    • Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
    • Myocardial infarction (heart attack). In myocardial infarction AST peaks about 24 hours after infarct and returns to normal 3-7 days later y Primary muscle disease.
    • Progressive muscular dystrophy.
    • Recent cardiac catheterization or angioplasty.
    • Recent convulsion.
    • Recent surgery y Severe deep burn.
    • Skeletal muscle trauma.
    Decreased levels :
    • uremia.
    • vitamin B6 deficiency.

    ₹300 ₹250

    BILIRUBIN -DIRECT
    conjugated bilirubin , BILD tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Neutrophils make up the greater part of the circulating granulocytes, They possess a high granular content. They appear in different distribution patterns: primary and secondary granules. They contain large number of enzymes which are primarily important for defence against the bacterial infection. They include the microcidal enzymes such as the myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme, neutral proteases such as elastase. Cytoplasmic constituents of neutrophils may also be a cause of formation of specific anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) which are closely related to the development of systemic vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. ANCA are antibodies directed against enzymes that are found mainly within the azurophil or primary granules of neutrophils.There are three types of ANCA that can be distinguished by the patterns they produce by indirect immunofluorescence when tested on normal ethanol-fixed neutrophils.

    • Cytoplasmic: c-ANCA.
    • Perinuclear: P-ANCA.
    • The third group designated "atypical" ANCA includes neutrophil nuclear fluorescence and some unusual cytoplasmic patterns and while a few of the target antigens are shared with P-ANCA, the others have not been identified yet. A typical ANCA: any positive staining of cells other than p or c-ANCA.
    Perinuclear:

    P-ANCA, localized perinuclear or nuclear staining pattern of the indicator neutrophils. The major p- ANCA antigen is the enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO). Perinuclear fluorescence ( P-ANCA) is found in many cases of microscopic polyarteritis and glomerulonephritis. These antibodies are often directed against myeloperoxidase but other targets include elastase, cathe-psin G, lactoferrin, lysozyme and D-glucuronidase. P-ANCA are also found in a third of patients with Crohn's disease. The reported incidence of ANCA in rheumatoid arthritis and SLE varies considerably but the patterns are predominantly P-ANCA and atypical ANCA. Antibodies directed against certain proteins in the cytoplasm of neutrophils.

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) have been identified as the principal antigens for P-ANCA. The enzymes are localized in the primary granules of neutrophils.

    ₹400 ₹380

    BLOOD UREA NITROGEN (BUN)
    , BUN tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    The blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is a routine test used primarily to evaluate renal (kidney) function. The test is often performed on patients with many different diseases.Urea is formed in the liver as the end product of proteinmetabolism (or degradation). During digestion, protein is broken down to amino acids. Amino acids contain nitrogen, which is removed as NH4+ (ammonium ion), while the rest of the molecule is used to produce energy or other substances needed by the cell. The ammonia is combined with other small molecules to produce urea. The urea makes its way into the blood and it is ultimately eliminated in the urine by the kidneys.

    Because urea is cleared from the bloodstream by the kidneys, a test measuring how much urea nitrogen remains in the blood can be used as a test of renal function. BUN gives an estimation of blood urea (the end product of protein and amino acid catabolism). The kidneys ultimately excrete most of the urea. An assessment of the BUN is used as a gross index of glomerular function.

    A blood urea nitrogen (BUN) test is done to:
    • Determine whether the kidneys are functioning normally.
    • Determine whether kidney disease is getting worse.
    • Monitor treatment of kidney disease.
    • Determine whether a person is severely dehydrated.

    Most renal diseases affect urea excretion so that BUN levels increase in the blood. Patients with dehydration or bleeding into the stomach and/or intestines may also have abnormal BUN levels. Numerous drugs also affect BUN by competing with it for elimination by the kidneys.

    What abnormal results mean:

    Elevated levels :
    • congestive heart failure.
    • excessive protein catabolism (for example, starvation).
    • excessive protein ingestion.
    • gastrointestinal bleeding.
    • hypovolemia.
    • myocardial infarction.
    • renal disease (for example, glomerulonephritis, pyelonephritis, and acute tubular necrosis).
    • renal failure.
    • shock.
    • urinary tract obstruction (for example, tumor, stones, and prostatic hypertrophy).
    • Pre renal azotemia.
    • Post renal azotemia.
    Decreased levels :
    • liver failure.
    • low protein diet.
    • malnutrition.
    • over hydration.
    • Third trimester of pregnancy.
    Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
    • acute nephritic syndrome.
    • chronic renal failure.
    • dementia due to metabolic causes.
    • diabetic nephropathy/sclerosis.
    • digitalis toxicity.
    • epilepsy.
    • ₹500 ₹380

    CA 15.3
    , C153 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Antibody developed against hepatitis envelope antigen (HbeAg). Anti-HBe is the second antibody to appear and is associated with the rapid clearance of HBeAg. Later, anti-HBe declines and persists for only a few months or years if there is no active viral replication. If HBeAg is considered a specific marker of infectivity, the presence of anti-HBeAg antibody in blood is recognized to be a clinical sign of recovery from infection to convalescence.

    ₹1000 ₹685

    CA 19.9
    , C199 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Serum iron reflects principally the amount of iron bound to transferrin. Serum transferrin represents the maximal amount of iron that can be bound, which is referred to as total iron binding capacity (TIBC).Normally, only one third of the binding sites of transferrin are occupied. The unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC), obtained by subtracting serum iron from TIBC, is a measure of reserve iron-binding capacity of transferrin.

    Serum iron, as measured in the clinical laboratory, is really transferrin-associated ferric iron. Each transferrin molecule can carry 2 iron atoms. Normally about 30% of the available sites are filled. This is called the percent transferrin saturation. By completely saturating all the available binding sites, it is possible to measure the total iron binding capacity (TIBC). This is really a measure of the transferrin level in the serum. TIBC is usually elevated when total body iron stores are low. TIBC and percent transferrin saturation are usually measured at the same time serum iron is measured.

    What abnormal values mean:

    Elevated levels:
    • Iron deficiency anemia.
    • Pregnancy (late).
    Decreased levels:
    • Cirrhosis.
    • Hemolytic anemia.
    • Hypoproteinemia.
    • Sernicious anemia.
    • Sickle cell anemia.
    • Inflammation.
    • Malnutrition.
    • Liver disease.

    ₹1000 ₹685

    CA-125
    , C125 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    CA-125 is a mucin like glycoprotein. It is a surface antigen associated with nonmucinous epithelial ovarian cancer. The protein is sloughed or secreted from the surface of the ovarian cancer cells into the serum or ascites also made by inflamed normal cells that line body parts. This substance is shed in body fluids and finds its way into the bloodstream. It is a useful tumor marker for evaluating therapy and monitoring disease status in patients under treatment for ovarian cancer.

    ₹900 ₹625

    CARCINO EMBRYONIC ANTIGEN (CEA)
    , CEA tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein found in many types of cells but associated with tumors and the developing fetus. CEA is a protein that normally occurs in fetal gut tissue. After birth, detectable serum levels essentially disappear. However, CEA may increase in the presence of various disorders such as colon cancer.This test may also be used to determine the responsiveness of cancer patients to treatment (to determine if cancer is spreading or going into remission).The CEA was one of the first oncofetal antigens to be described and exploited clinically. It is a complex glycoprotein of molecular weight 20,000, that is associated with the plasma membrane of tumor cells, from wich it may be released into the blood.

    Although CEA was first indentified in colon cancer, an abnormal CEA blood level is specific neither for colon cancer nor for malignancy in general. Elevated CEA levels are found in a variety of cancers other than colonic, including pancreatic, gastric, lung, and breast. It is also detected in benign conditions including cirrhosis, inflamatory bowel disease, chronic lung disease, and pancreatitis. The CEA was found to be elevated in up to 19 per cent of smokers and in 3 per cent of a healthy control population. Thus, the test for CEA cannot substitute for a pathological diagnosis.

    Since cancer prevalence in a healthy population is low, an elevated CEA has an unacceptably low positive predictive value, with excess false positives. Also, since elevated CEA occurs in the advanced stage of incurable cancer but is low in the early, curable disease, the likelihood of a positive result affecting a patient's survival is diminished.The CEA has been sugested as having prognostic value for patients with colon cancer. Preoperative CEA values have been positively correlated with stage and negatively correlated with disease free survival.

    Although not satisfactory for screening a healthy population, CEA has been used to monitor recurrence. Early data suggested that CEA predicted clinical relapse by several months. Subsequently, several investigators have examined intensive, serial CEA monitoring as an indicator for second look surgery in the hope that relapse could be detected at a time when surgicaL resection for cure was still possible. Criteria for reoperation included a significant rise of CEA above a base line level on serial determinations and absence of obvious unresectable disease on staging workup. Determinations of CEA should be done frequently: at a minimum of every 3 months and if possible every 1 month to 2 months. Elevations above baseline should be verified rapidly to exclude laboratory error.

    The CEA is of some use as a monitor in treatment. Usually the CEA returns to normal within 1 to 2 months of surgery, but if it returns elevated persistent disease may be indicated. The test is not infallible in patients treated wi

    ₹700 ₹500

    CARDIOLIPIN ANTIBODY (ACL) - IgM
    Anti-cardiolipin antibodies IgM, ACA IgM, IgM , AC_M tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Levels of antibodies against cardiolipins are found high in several disorders :

    1. Syphilis
    2. Venous and arterial thrombosis
    3. Antiphospholipid syndrome
    4. Livedoid Vasculitis
    5. Behcet's syndrome
    6. Spontaneous abortion
    7. Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus
    8. Myocardial infarction
    9. Thrombocytopenia

    ₹650 ₹460

    CARDIOLIPIN ANTIBODY (ACL) -IgG
    Anti-cardiolipin antibodies IgG, ACA IgG, IgG , AC_G tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Increased levels :

    • Biliary obstruction
    • Alcoholic liver disease (hepatitis/cirrhosis)
    • Bone disease
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Hyperparathyroidism
    • Leukemia
    • Gilbert syndrome
    • Fatty metamorphosis of liver
    • Sepsis : Certain viral diseases like infectious mononucleosis; cytomegalovirus infections
    • Postoperative cholestasis, pancreatitis, carcinoma of pancreas, cystic fibrosis

    Decreased levels :

    • Malnutrition
    • Protein deficiency
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Hypophosphatasia

    Additional conditions under which the test may be performed :

    • Giant cell (temporal, cranial) arteritis
    • Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II
    • Renal cell carcinoma

    ₹650 ₹460

    CBC / Hemogram (Diff)
    tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    A complete blood count (CBC) is done to evaluate a wide range of disorders as well as overall health of an individual. It is the calculation of the cellular components of the blood. A total of 28 parameters are analyzed along with IG and NRBC.

    Tests Include

  • EOSINOPHILS - ABSOLUTE COUNT
  • LYMPHOCYTES - ABSOLUTE COUNT
  • MONOCYTES - ABSOLUTE COUNT
  • NEUTROPHILS - ABSOLUTE COUNT
  • BASOPHILS
  • LYMPHOCYTE PERCENTAGE
  • TOTAL LEUCOCYTES COUNT
  • NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS %
  • TOTAL RBC
  • RED CELL DISTRIBUTION WIDTH (RDW-CV)
  • RDWSD RED CELL DISTRIBUTION WIDTH - SD(RDW-SD)
  • PLATELET TO LARGE CELL RATIO(PLCR)
  • PLATELET COUNT
  • MEAN CORPUSCULAR HEMOGLOBIN(MCH)
  • MEAN CORP.HEMO.CONC(MCHC)
  • MEAN CORPUSCULAR VOLUME(MCV)
  • MONOCYTES
  • MEAN PLATELET VOLUME(MPV)
  • NEUTROPHILS
  • NUCLEATED RED BLOOD CELLS
  • PLATELETCRIT(PCT)
  • HEMATOCRIT(PCV)
  • PLATELET DISTRIBUTION WIDTH(PDW)
  • HEMOGLOBIN
  • EOSINOPHILS
  • IMMATURE GRANULOCYTES(IG)
  • IMMATURE GRANULOCYTE PERCENTAGE(IG%)
  • BASOPHILS - ABSOLUTE COUNT
  • ₹600 ₹400

    COMPLEMENT 4 (C4)
    , C4 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Abnormal levels of serum albumin indicate one of the following conditions :

    1. Ascites.
    2. Glomerulonephritis.
    3. Liver disease (for example, hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular necrosis).
    4. Malabsorption syndromes (for example : Crohn's disease, sprue or Whipple's disease).
    5. Malnutrition.
    6. Nephrotic syndrome.

    ₹800 ₹590

    CYTOMEGALO VIRUS (CMV) - IgM
    , CM_M tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    CMV is a member of the herpes virus group, and most frequently transmitted to a developing child before birth. Once a person becomes infected, the virus remains alive, but usually dormant within that person's body for life. Major areas of concern are (1) the risk of infection to the unborn baby during pregnancy, (2) the risk of infection to people who work with children. CMV infection is more widespread in developing countries and in areas of lower socioeconomic conditions.

    Major areas of concern are:

    • The risk of infection to the unborn baby during pregnancy.
    • The risk of infection to people who work with children, and
    • The risk of infection to the immunocompromised person, such as organ transplant recipients and persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    ₹600 ₹400

    ECG at Home
    tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    The electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) is a diagnostic tool that is routinely used to assess the electrical and muscular functions of the heart. While it is a relatively simple test to perform, the interpretation of the ECG tracing requires significant amounts of training.

    ₹999 ₹750

    ESTRADIOL/OESTROGEN
    Estradiol, Oestrogen, E2 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Estradiol is a steroid hormone, which circulates predominantly protein-bound. In addition to estradiol, other natural steroidal estrogens include estrone, estriol and their conjugates. Natural estrogens are hormones secreted principally by the ovarian follicles and also by the adrenals, corpus luteum, and placenta and, in males, by the testes. Exogenous estrogens (natural or synthetic) elicit, to varying degrees, all the pharmacologic responses usually produced by endogenous estrogens.

    Estradiol is metabolized to estrone and estriol by various target tissues. Estrogenic hormones are secreted at varying rates during the menstrual cycle throughout the period of ovarian activity. The gonadotropins of the anterior pituitary regulate secretion of the ovarian hormones, estradiol and progesterone. Hypothalamic control of pituitary gonadotropin production is in turn regulated by plasma concentrations of the estrogens and progesterone. During pregnancy, the placenta becomes the main source of estrogens. At the menopause, ovarian secretion of estrogens declines at varying rates.

    ₹600 ₹450

    FERRITIN
    , FERR tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Ferritin is an iron molecules bound to apoferritin, a protein shell. Stored iron represents about 25% of total iron in the body, and most of this is stored as ferritin. Ferritin plays a significant role in the absorption, storage and release of iron. Ferritin remains in the body tissues until it is needed for erythropoiesis (development of mature red blood cells). When needed, the iron molecules are released from the apoferritin shell and bind to transferrin, which is the circulating plasma protein that transports iron to the erythropoietic cells.

    ₹650 ₹460

    FOLIC ACID
    , FOLI tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Folic acid is a water-soluble vitamin of the B-complex group. Folate is essential to hematopoiesis.Megaloblastic anemia is almost always due to lack of either folic acid or vit B12. Folate deficiency is commonly encountered as a result of dietary deficiency or increased demand for this vitamin.(eg: pregnancy) Folic acid acts as a coenzyme (with vitamin B-12 and vitamin C) in the breakdown (metabolism) of proteins and in the synthesis of new proteins. It is necessary for the production of red blood cells and the synthesis of DNA (which controls heredity), as well as tissue growth and cell function. It also increases the appetite and stimulates the formation of digestive acids. Also known as Vitamin B9; Pteroylglutamic acid.Synthetic folic acid supplements may be used in the treatment of disorders associated with folic acid deficiency, and may also be part of the recommended treatment for certain menstrual problems and leg ulcers.

    Food sources

    • beans and legumes.
    • citrus fruits and juices.
    • wheat bran and other whole grains.
    • dark green leafy vegetables.
    • poultry, pork, shellfish liver.

    ₹650 ₹460

    FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE (FSH)
    , FSH tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    As its name implies, FSH stimulates the maturation of ovarian follicles. It is secreted by the anterior pituitary in response to gonadotropin - releasing hormone (GnRH) secreted by the hypothalamus. It is a glycoprotein hormone. In both males and females, FSH secretion is regulated by a balance of positive and negative feedback mechanisms involving the Hypothalamus-pituitary axis, the reproductive organs and the pituitary and sex steroid hormones.

    In females, it stimulates follicle development and production of estradiol and other estrogens during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. It acts synergistically with LH to cause ovulation. Its measurement is usually used to determine the cause of infertility, gonadal failure and menstrual disturbances.In males, FSH is also critical for sperm production. It supports the function of Sertoli cells, which in turn support many aspects of sperm cell maturation.

    ₹600 ₹400

    FREE PSA
    , FPSA tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Levels of antibodies against cardiolipins are found high in several disorders :

    1. Syphilis
    2. Venous and arterial thrombosis
    3. Antiphospholipid syndrome
    4. Livedoid Vasculitis
    5. Behcet's syndrome
    6. Spontaneous abortion
    7. Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus
    8. Myocardial infarction
    9. Thrombocytopenia

    ₹900 ₹650

    FREE TESTOSTERONE
    , FTES tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Testosterone, a C 18 steroid, is the most potent naturally secreted androgen. In normal postpubertal males, testosterone is secreted primarily by the testes with only a small amount derived from peripheral conversion of 4- or 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-dione (ASD). In adult women, it has been estimated that more than 50 % of serum testosterone is derived from peripheral conversion of ASD secreted by the adrenal glands and ovaries, with the reminder derived from direct secretion of testosterone by these glands.

    Testosterone circulates in plasma either freely or bound to plasma proteins. The binding proteins include the specific SHBG and non specific proteins such as albumin. In men, testosterone circulates bound 44 - 65% to SHBG and 33 - 50% to albumin, whereas in women, testosterone is bound to 66 -78 % to SHBG and 20 -30 % to albumin. The bioavailable testosterone is equal to about 35 % of the total, or the free plus the albumin bound.

    When measuring testosterone levels, it is most important to look at the level of free testosterone, because it is the free (not bound to protein) testosterone found in the blood serum that is the active one.The FAI can be used to estimate physiologically active testosterone. This index is calculated as the ratio of total testosterone divided by SHBG (both expressed in the same units) and multiplied by 100 to yield numerical results comparable in free testosterone concentration.

    In most men and women, >50% of total circulating testosterone is bound to sex hormone-binding globulin, SHBG, and most of the rest is bound to albumin. SHBG-bound testosterone is not readily available for intracellular complex formation because of SHBG's high binding affinity for testosterone. Thus, testosterone-bound SHBG is considered to be biologically inactive. Albumin has a much lower binding affinity for testosterone but binds a significant portion of the total testosterone because albumin is present at much higher plasma concentrations than SHBG. The rapid dissociation of "weakly bound" testosterone from albumin, together with a relatively long transit time of albumin through target tissue capillary beds, result in the availability of essentially all albumin-bound testosterone for steroid-receptor interaction. The sum of the free- and albumin-bound testosterone is often referred to as bioavailable testosterone. The concentration of testosterone in the various free and bound forms is essentially a function of total testosterone concentration and the relative concentrations of SHBG and albumin. It can be predicted that increased SHBG will decrease the concentration of both free and bioavailable testosterone for a given total testosterone concentration. The free androgen index can be used to estimate physiologically active testosterone.

    ₹1000 ₹540

    FREE THYROXINE (FT4)
    , FT4 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Thyroxine (T4) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland and plays an important role in regulating metabo­lism. Secretion into the circulation is in response to the pituitary hormone TSH and is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving the Thyroid gland, pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.

    In the circulation, 99.95%of T4 is reversibly bound to transport proteins, primarily thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and to a lesser extent albumin and thyroxine binding prealbumin(TBPA). The remaining T4 is not bound to transport proteins but is free in the circulation. This unbound fraction or free T4 (FT4) is both metabolically active and a precursor to triiodothyro­nine (T3).Whenever evaluation of T3, T4, TSH fails to give a clear diagnostic picture, it is advisable to do the FT3, FT4 tests.Especially when the patient is on treatment or pregnant, free hormones give a better picture of thyroid status.

    Elevated In:

    Grave's Disease:
    • Toxic Multinodular Goiter
    • Toxic adenoma
    Transient Hyperthyroidism:
    • Subacute thyroiditis
    • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
    Rarely:
    • Hyperthyroid secondary to pituitary disease.
    • Thyroid Cancer.
    • Amiodarone.

    Decreased Thyroxine or Free T4

    Primary Hypothyroidism
    • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.
    • Idiopathic Myxedema.
    • Preyious treatment of Hyperthyroidism.
    • Sub acute thyroiditis.
    • Prior neck radiotherapy.
    • iodine deficiency or excess.
    • Congenital.
    • Medications.
    Secondary Hypothyroidism
    • Pituitary dysfunction
    Tertiary Hypothyroidism
    • Hypothalamic disease Very rare.
    • Tissue resistance to Thyroid hormone.

    ₹400 ₹320

    FREE TRIIODOTHYRONINE (FT3)
    , FT3 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Whenever the thyroid function tests i.e. T3, T4, TSH fail to give a diagnostic conclusion, a combination of FT3 and FT4 are requested by the physician.Similar to T4, T3 also circulates in the blood bound to the binding proteins, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) and albumin. The free T3 concentration, which represents about 0.3% of the total circulating hormone concentration, is maintained independently of changes of binding protein levels. The determi­nation of free T3 concentration is a true measure of thyroid status and of cellular metabolism. The free T3 concentration is normal in euthyroid patients with abnormal binding protein levels. The changes in levels of binding proteins are found in certain congenital abnormalities and during pregnancy, use of androgens oral estrogens or contraceptives. Hyperthyroidism is generally associated with an increase of the free T3 concentration. Assessment of this value is of interest in some cases of T3 thyrotoxicosis when free T4 and TSH concentrations in the serum may be within the normal range.A decreased free T3 concentration indicates hypothyroidism. In certain severe non-thyroidal diseases, decreased levels may also be found.Determination of the free T3 concentration allows the follow-up of patients under replacement or suppressive therapy using T3.

    ₹400 ₹320

    GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE
    , G6PD tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Commonly called "Good cholesterol", HDL is not secreted into the circulation as a mature lipoprotein but is assembled in the blood from components derived from the intestine, liver, cell membranes and triglyceride rich lipoproteins during lipolysis. Cholesterol and phospholipids originating from membranes during cellular renewal and death become associated with HDL. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain how HDL might be a deterrent against atherosclerosis, One theory says that HDL acts as a scavenger by removing cholesterol from peripheral cells such as a smooth muscle. In this process free cholesterol in plasma membranes of peripheral tissues comes in contact with the surface of HDL, where it is esterified by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and stored in the core of the HDL particle. HDL could also provide protective benefits from its apparent ability to influence the binding and absorption of LDL by cells such as smooth muscle.

    ₹900 ₹600

    HbA1c
    Hemoglobin A1c , HBA tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    HbA1c is glycosylated hemoglobin also called as glycated haemoglobin, are post transitional modification of hemoglobin formed by non-enzymatic addition of a sugar residue to haemoglobin beta chain. Four species of glycated Hb are measured based one their electro-phoretic mobility in clinical practice - HbA1a1, HbA1a2, HbA1b, HbA1c, collectively called as HbA1.

    Formation of Glycosylated hemoglobin is essentially irreversible and the blood levels depend.on both the life span of red blood cell (average 120 days) and blood glucose concentration. Once glucose attaches to haemoglobin, it doesn't let it go. It's there for the lifetime of the red blood cell, which, in total is several months as new red blood cells are continually being made and others are dying. All this means that a glycohemoglobin test shows your average blood glucose level over the previous 6-8 weeks. It is therefore called a test with memory. Therefore, they represent integrated values for glucose over the preceding six to eight weeks. HbA1c is the major fraction constituting approximately 80% of HbA1.

    Increased synthesis of haemoglobin A1c correlates with lack of glucose control; in diabetics with good glucose control, the amount of Haemoglobin A1c returns to the reference levels.The measurement of glycated haemoglobin in the form of HbA1c has become a popular and important tool in assessing the glycemic control of diabetic patients. Its popularity is partly due to the fact that it gives clinicians an objective assessment of glucose control over the past 6 8 weeks. In addition, the test has been clinically validated by such studies as the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), which have shown that improved glycemic control, as measured by HbA1 c, can reduce the risk of developing micro vascular and other complications of diabetes.

    HbA1c can be measured in the routine laboratories from whole blood (EDTA) samples by different techniques like affinity chromatography (optimal technique), ion-exchange chromatography, electrophoresis, immunoassay and colorimetric methods. However, HPLC is regarded as the golden standard and is the trusted technique, used worldwide and also by the clinical trials done under DCCT. When measured with HPLC, HbA1c in whole blood is stable for 7 days at 4 C and for 3 days at 25 C.

    The HbA1c test should be done every three to six months, depending on the treatment program and level of control of diabetes.The ADA recommends that the HbA1c level first are measured at the time of diagnosis and initiation of treatment. Thereafter, the test should be done at least twice a year in people with non-insulin-dependent (type II) diabetes who do not use insulin; four times a year in people with insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes or those with type II diabetes who use insulin. It should be done more frequently in people with either type Type I or Type II d

    ₹600 ₹260

    HDL CHOLESTEROL - DIRECT
    High density lipoprotein cholesterol , HCHO tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Commonly called "Good cholesterol", HDL is not secreted into the circulation as a mature lipoprotein but is assembled in the blood from components derived from the intestine, liver, cell membranes and triglyceride rich lipoproteins during lipolysis. Cholesterol and phospholipids originating from membranes during cellular renewal and death become associated with HDL. Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain how HDL might be a deterrent against atherosclerosis, One theory says that HDL acts as a scavenger by removing cholesterol from peripheral cells such as a smooth muscle. In this process free cholesterol in plasma membranes of peripheral tissues comes in contact with the surface of HDL, where it is esterified by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and stored in the core of the HDL particle. HDL could also provide protective benefits from its apparent ability to influence the binding and absorption of LDL by cells such as smooth muscle.

    ₹250 ₹200

    HEPATITIS B ENVELOPE ANTIGEN (HBeAg)
    , EAG tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    'e' antigen (HBeAg) secreted protein is shed in small amounts into the blood. Its presence in serum indicates that a high level of viral replication is occurring in the liver. The hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) is not a structural molecule; however, more than two thirds of its amino acid sequence is identical to that of the core protein. It can be secreted from hepatocytes directly into blood as a soluble protein, which is thought to promote and maintain persistent infection. Its presence indicates high levels of virus in the blood, and it is an indicator of the infectiousness of the carrier. If this test is negative, but a person is known to be HBsAg positive, then it indicates low levels of virus in the blood or an "integrated phase" of HBV in which the virus is integrated into the host's DNA. This test is often used to monitor the effectiveness of some HBV therapies, whose goal is to convert an actively replicating state to "e-antigen negative" state.

    ₹800 ₹550

    HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGEN (HBsAg)
    Australia Antigen, SAG tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Liver is a site of 90% of all proteins and 100% albumin synthesis.

    Functions of Plasma/Serum Proteins:

    • Transport: Plasma proteins act as carrier molecules for the transport of lipids and lipid soluble substances such as bilirubin, steroid hormones, metals, vitamins and drugs,
    • Maintenance of osmotic pressure of blood: Circulating blood volume is kept constant mainly by the colloid osmotic pressure exerted by albumin.
    • Tissue repair and growth: Metabolism of protein releases amino acids which can be used either for the synthesis of new proteins or for the generation of energy.
    • Protection: globulin fraction of plasma proteins (immunoglobulins), provide a defense mechanism against infection.
    • Maintenance of blood pH: Plasma proteins act as bases at normal pH of blood and help in the pH regulations.
    • Enzymes and coagulation factors: Most enzymes and some coagulation factors are proteins. The estimation of these, is of great importance in diseases affecting the liver as well as in other conditions.

    What abnormal results mean:

    Elevated levels :
    • Multiple Myeloma.
    • Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemias.
    • Collagen-vascular disease.
    • Sarcoidosis.
    • Dehydration.
    • Arthritis.
    • Chronic infections.
    • Some cases of chronic liver disease, including chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis.
    • Tropical diseases (eg, kala-azar, leprosy, and others).
    • Collagen disease (eg, lupus erythematosus (SLE), and other instances of chronic infection/inflammation).
    Decreased levels :
    • Malnutrition.
    • Low protein diet.
    • Malabsorption.
    • Overhydration.
    • Pregnancy.
    • Chronic disease.
    • Neoplasm.
    • Nephrosis.
    • Cirrhosis.
    • Prolonged immobilization.
    • Heart failure.
    • Protein losing enteropathies.
    • Crohn disease and chronic ulcerative colitis.
    • Hyperthyroidism.
    • Burns.
    • Severe skin disease; and other chronic diseases.

    ₹1000 ₹665

    HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV)-IgG
    , HC_G tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Elevated levels are seen in :

    1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).
    2. Adrenal Tumors.
    3. Late onset adrenal hyperplasia.
    4. Other forms of adrenal hyperplasia including 11-hydroxylase deficiency.
    5. 3-? hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency.

    ₹600 ₹400

    HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS (HSV)-IgM
    , HC_M tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    The Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family, of which to types are known : type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) which present slight antigenic differences. HSV-1 causes chiefly oral-facial lesions, while HSV-2 is mainly responsible for genital lesions. HSV may also cause a form of ocular cheratitis and lesions of the central nervous system. Psychosocial distress, increased risk of HIV infection, and perinatal transmission are all factors that can complicate this painful disease. Appropriate treatment becomes critical to decreasing morbidity.HSV affects the skin, mucous membranes and, less frequently, the esophagus and brain. Skin infections are usually located in the orolabial, genital, or anorectal areas. Orofacial herpes affects the trigeminal ganglion, whereas genital herpes involves the sacral ganglion.

    Herpes simplex infection generally occurs in two phases: the initial, primary infection, followed by secondary, recurrent disease at the same site. In the first phase, the virus spreads by close person-to-person contact with lesions or mucosal secretions (eg, saliva, cervical discharge) as well as by respiratory droplets. The virus then spreads to regional lymph nodes, causing tender lymphadenopathy. At this point, the lesions are numerous and more scattered than in recurrent disease. Recurrent herpes, in contrast, is milder and of shorter duration than the primary infection. Genital herpes recurs more often than labial herpes, and HSV-2 infection is more likely to recur than HSV-1. HSV-1 HSV-II Transplacental. Sexual transmission. Contacts of infected saliva with active wound. Transplacental.

    Oral secretion Any person who has engaged in sexual activities is at risk for infection with genital herpes. However, a number of factors have been shown to increase the risk of acquiring the disease. The following may increase the risk of becoming infected with genital herpes:

    • Younger age at onset of sexual activity.
    • Female gender: among heterosexuals, genital herpes is more easily spread from male to female than female to male. However, males still frequently get genital herpes from females.
    • Multiple partners: more sex partners may increase the risk especially if safer sex practices are not always followed.

    ₹600 ₹400

    HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS I (HSV)-IgG
    , HS1G tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    1. GH promotes protein conservation and engages wide range of mechanisms for protein synthesis.
    2. It also enhances glucose transport and facilitates the build up of glycogen stores.

    ₹600 ₹400

    HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS I (HSV)-IgM
    , HS1M tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus Is the etiological agent of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), HIV infection is now recognized worldwide as a major public health problem. Hence screening methods play an important role in disease detection. The most common immunoassay used for the detection of antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 are the Enzyme -Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), rapid tests and Immunoblot or Western Blot assay w3hich are easy to perform. The Western Blot test can be used as a more specific and supplemental assay on human serum found repeatedly reactive using ELISA.

    Advantages:
    • Highly sensitive and specific quantitative assay.
    • 100% reproducibility and total reliability.
    • Easy and clear interpretation through easy-to bind-read bands.
    • Detection of individual HIV-I Proteins(band).
    Limitations of the procedure:

    Although a blot positive for antibodies to HIV-I indicates infection with the virus but diagnosis of AIDS can only be made clinically if a person meets the case definition of AIDS established by the World Health Organization or other relevant authorities.

    It is recommended that all indeterminate blots be repeated using original specimen and sequential samples .Blood donors with an indeterminate blot should be retested using a fresh specimen after two to six months.

    It is also known that antibodies to p24 and p31 decrease during the course of AIDS, leading to a shift in blot interpretation from positive to Indeterminate. Indetermination of results should then be based on subsequent blot testing and clinical evaluations in such situations.

    Gp41: Antibodiestogp41 may appear on the strip as

    • Single band or may appear as
    • Two separate bands or may appear as
    • Three separate bands, depending upon antibody concentration in the sample. This is because gp41 antibodies are having tendency to aggregate.
    D

    ue to its highly specific nature, on-reactivity of samples with HIV-2 specific antigen on an indeterminate viral blots, does not exclude the possibility of infection with other strains of HIV-2.Samples that are indicated as HIV-2 infections should be further tested with a HIV-2 Western Blot kit. HIV-1&HIV-2 viruses share, many morphological and biological characteristics. It is likely that due to this, their antibodies have a cross reactivity of 30-70%.

    Interpretation:

    HIV-1 POSITIVE is reported when either of gp160,gp41,gp120 band and p24 band and /or p31,p51,p66 band is detected as per interpretative Western Blot criteria forHIV by WHO guidelines. HIV-1 POSITIVE with HIV-2 INDICATED is reported when either of gp160,gp41,gp120 band and p24 band and/or p31,p51,p66 band is detected for HIV-1and HIV-2 band.

    ₹600 ₹400

    HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS II (HSV)-IgG
    , HS2G tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    GGT is the enzyme which catalyses the transfer of -glutamyl group from peptides to water, amino acids and other peptides. The enzyme is present in large amount in the kidneys, followed by liver, pancreas, and prostate. The other tissues contain negligible amounts of the enzyme. Most sensitive, but least specific of all Liver function tests. It is a biliary enzyme that is especially useful in the diagnosis of obstructive jaundice, intrahepatic cholestasis, and pancreatitis. GGT is more responsive to biliary obstruction than are aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/ (SGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) /(SGPT).GGT discriminates the source of elevated ALP. It is utilized as a supplementary test to be sure that the elevation of ALP is indeed coming from the liver or biliary tract. In contrast to the ALP, GGT is not elevated in diseases of bone, placenta or intestine.GGT is markedly increased in lesions that cause intrahepatic or extrahepatic obstruction of bile ducts.

    What abnormal results mean :

    Elevated levels :
    1. congestive heart failure.
    2. cholestasis (congestion of the bile ducts).
    3. cirrhosis.
    4. hepatic ischemia (blood deficiency).
    5. hepatic necrosis (tissue death).
    6. Hepatic tumor.
    7. hepatitis.
    8. hepatotoxic drugs.
    9. hepatoma and carcinoma of pancreas.
    10. systemic lupus erythematosus.
    11. hyperthyroidism.
    12. Congestive Heart Failure (CHF).
    13. Sepsis.
    14. infectious mononucleosis.

    ₹600 ₹400

    HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS II (HSV)-IgM
    , HS2M tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Cytoplasmic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies are diffuse and granular on cytoplasmic staining pattern observed by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) microscopy when serum antibodies bind to indicator neutrophils. Proteinase 3 (PR3) present in azurophilic granules of neutrophils is the major antigen for c- ANCA. Diffuse fine granular cytoplasmic fluorescence (c-ANCA) is typically found in Wegener's granulomatosis, in some cases of microscopic polyarteritis and Churg Strauss syndrome, and in some cases of crescentic and segmental necrotising glomerulonephritis, but is rare in other conditions.The target antigen is usually proteinase.Protinase 3 have been identified as the principal antigens for c-ANCA. The enzymes are localized in the primary granules of neutrophils.

    ₹600 ₹400

    HIGH SENSITIVE C - REACTIVE PROTEIN (HsCRP)
    , CRP tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Although CRP has been used for many years for diagnosis of tissue injury or inflammatory, there is renewed interest in its use in cardiovascular diseases. This is due to a better understanding of the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndromes. Clinical studies have shown that CRP may be useful in the risk stratification of apparently healthy subjects, and in patients with unstable angina pectoris and AMI.

    ₹650 ₹545

    HLA-B27
    , HB27 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    HLA B27 is Major Histocompatability Complex (MHC) class I molecule. Class I antigens are the products of the three different gene loci (ABC) located on the human chromosomes 6.The HLA-B27 gene is an allele of the B-locus,ln contrast to class II antigens, class I antigens are expressed on the most nucleated cells as well as on platelets.HLA typing involving the determination of all antigen specificities an individual has inherited(including class II antigens).It is an important procedure in transplantation and transfusion. Clinical data indicate several HLA specificities (class I and class II) are associated with certain disorders.Therefore.testing for these HLA specificities is of special interest when the symptoms suggest the presence of one of the associated disorders.

    Not only does the presence of HLA-B27 significantly aid in the diagnosis of these disorders but those patients who have clinical presentation compatible with seronegstive arthropathy and who are HLA-B27 negative in general have a milder disease and better prognosis than patients who are HLA-B27 positive. Therefore, HLA-B27 testing is helpful even when the results are negative.There is a strong association between the presence of the HLA-B27 antigen and an increased incidence of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) as well as several other disorders such as Reiter's syndrome, psoriatic arthritis and arthropathies associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. These disorders are collectively known as the seronegative spondyloarthropathies.HLA-B27 positive patient is more likely to exhibit spondyloarthropathies than an HLA-B27 negative patient.The two color monoclonal reagent contains a FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibody specific for HLA-B27 and a PE-conjugated CD3 antibody specific for human T lymphocytes. Class I histocompatibility antigens are expressed on the most nucleated cells. The number of molecules expressed per cell is specific for the cell type and is reflected in the different fluorescence intensities.CD3 PE enables the software to automatically set a gate on T lymphocytes from an FSCvsFL2 dot pilot.

    ₹1400 ₹1050

    HOMOCYSTEINE
    , HOMO tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Homocysteine is an amino acid. It is not possible to get homocysteine from the diet. It must be made from methionine, found in meat, fish, and dairy products, with the help of Vitamins B6 (pyridoxine), B12 and folic acid.

    A high level of homocysteine in the blood may lead to inflammation in the blood vessels, which is a possible risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    ₹1200 ₹900

    IRON
    Ferritin Blood Test, Fe , IRON tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    The fourth most abundant element in the earth's crust, iron is only a trace element in biologic systems, making up only 0.004% of the body's mass. Yet it is an essential component or cofactor of numerous metabolic reactions. By weight, the great proportion of the body's iron is dedicated to its essential role as a structural component of hemoglobin. Fe + + is the most important component of hemoglobin and is responsible for its oxygen carrying capacity.

    Without sufficient iron available to the RBC precursors, normal erythropoiesis cannot take place, and anemia develops. On the other hand, iron is a toxic substance. Too much iron accumulating in vital structures (especially the heart, pancreas, and liver) produces a potentially fatal condition, hemochromatosis. Most of the iron not circulating in the RBCs is stored in the Fe+ + + (ferric) oxidation state. This iron is stored in marrow histiocytes in the form of hemosiderin. When iron is needed by the RBC (erythrocyte), the hemosiderin gives up its iron to nearby RBC precursors who line up around the histiocyte.Being primarily responsible for oxygen transport via hemoglobin, Iron levels should be measured to diagnose for the iron deficiency anemia; low levels, however, can occur both in true iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and anemia of chronic disease (ACD).

    There are four different types of tests that measure the body's iron levels and storage. They are called iron level tests, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) tests, ferritin tests, and transferrin tests.

    These tests are given for several reasons:
    • To help in the differential diagnosis of different types of anemia.
    • To assess the severity of anemia and monitor the treatment of patients with chronic anemia.
    • To evaluate protein depletion and other forms of malnutrition.
    • To check for certain liver disorders.
    • To evaluate the possibility of chronic gastrointestinal bleeding. Blood loss from the digestive tract is a common cause of iron deficiency anemia.
    • To help diagnose certain unusual disorders, including iron poisoning, thalassemia, hemosiderosis (An overload of iron in the body resulting from repeated blood transfusions. Hemosiderosis occurs most often in patients with thalassemia), and hemochromatosis (A disorder of iron absorption characterized by bronze-colored skin. It can cause painful joints, diabetes, and liver damage if the iron concentration is not lowered.)
    Anemia:

    Anemia is a commonly encountered clinical condition that is caused by an acquired or hereditary abnormality of red blood cells (RBC) or its precursors, or may be a manifestation of a non-hematological disorder. It is defined as "a decrease in the circulating RBC mass and a corresponding decrease in the oxygen-carrying capacity of

    ₹500 ₹380

    LDL CHOLESTEROL - DIRECT
    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol , LDL tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    LDL delivers cholesterol to cells for membrane synthesis and steroid hormone synthesis, via LDL receptors. In healthy humans, more than 70% of the LDL circulating in plasma is removed in each day through LDL receptors. Diets high in saturated fat and cholesterol decrease the liver's endogenous synthesis of cholesterol and can cause chronic suppression of the LDL receptors resulting in elevated circulatory levels of LDL. Excess LDL is removed from the blood streams by cells of the reticuloendothelial system (RES) via the scavenger cell pathway. This removal results in the perioxidation of LDL and may promote the cholesterol and cholestryl ester accumulation in macrophages and smooth muscle cells that lead to the development of atherosclerotic plaque. An abundance of research has established that elevated serum levels of LDL are a major cause of coronary heart disease. Thus measuring LDL is critical for complete interpretation of total cholesterol level.The total cholesterol level is the sum of LDL, HDL, and VLDL cholesterol.Excess cholesterol in the blood has been correlated with cardiovascular disease. LDL is sometimes referred to as "bad" cholesterol because elevated levels of LDL correlate most directly with coronary heart disease.

    What abnormal results mean:

    Elevated levels:
  • Increased risk of atherosclerotic heart disease
  • Familial hyperlipoproteinemia


  • Decreased levels:
  • Malabsorption (inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract)
  • Malnutrition


  • Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
  • Familial combined hyperlipidemia
  • Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia
  • Familial hypertriglyceridemia
  • ₹350 ₹300

    LIPASE
    , LASE tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    This test may be measured to evaluate pancreas function.Lipase is a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes lipids, the ester bonds in triglycerides, to form fatty acids and glycerol. It is produced in the pancreas, salivary glands, as well as by gastric, pulmonary, and intestinal mucosa.Lipase is an enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestines. It catalyzes the breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids.i.e. to break down dietary fats into an absorbable form. When lipase levels are insufficient to break down dietary fats, greasy, light-colored stools ensue; this condition is called steatorrhea.As with amylase, lipase appears in the blood following damage to the pancreatic acinar cells.Pancreatin contains lipase along with two other groups of enzymes: proteases and amylase.

    All cell membranes and other structures are made up of lipids, thus an adequate supply of essential fatty acids in the diet are important to ensure viable cells. Because lipase requires the coenzyme, chloride, lipase deficient people have a tendency towards hyphochlorhydria (low chlorides in our electrolyte balance). Lipase deficient people have decreased cell permeability, meaning nutrients cannot get in and the waste cannot get out. A common symptom of lipase deficiency is muscle spasms. It commonly occurs as trigger point pain in the muscles across the upper shoulders, but it can occur in other muscles, such as those in the neck or anywhere in the small or large intestines including the muscles of the rectal tissues.Lipase appears in the blood together with another enzyme called amylase following damage to or diseases affecting the pancreas. Diseases involving the pancreas, however, produce much higher lipase levels than diseases of other organs. Lipase levels in pancreatic disorders are often 5-10 times higher than normal.

    What abnormal values mean:

    Increased levels:
    • Pancreatitis.
    • Pancreatic cancer.
    • Cholecystitis (with secondary effect on the pancreas) Perforated peptic ulcer.
    Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
    • Chronic pancreatitis.
    • Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency.

    ₹600 ₹400

    PROLACTIN (PRL)
    , PRL tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Prolactin is a single chain polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary under the control of prolactin- inhibiting factors and prolactin releasing factors. These factors are secreted by the hypothalamus. PRL is also synthesized by the placenta and is present in amniotic fluid.PRL initiates and maintains lactation in females. It also plays a role in regulating gonadal function in both males and females. During pregnancy and post-partum lactation, serum prolactin can rise 10 to 20 fold. Prolactin secretion is pulsatile and also shows diurnal variation, with the serum concentration increasing during sleep and their lowest ~3 hours after waking. The secretion of prolactin is increased by stress and is dependent upon a womens estrogen status.

    ₹600 ₹400

    PROSTATE SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (PSA)
    , PSA tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    The prostate is a gland of the male reproductive system. It is located in front of the rectum and just below the bladder, the organ that stores urine. The main purpose of the prostate is to produce fluid for semen, which transports sperm. For men who are 40 and over, the prostate may become a source of problems. For instance, 1 in 10 men will develop prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men after lung cancer. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a tumor marker. It is considered to be the most remarkable marker available for diagnosis and management of prostatic carcinoma.

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein produced primarily by the epithelial cells that line the acini and ducts of the prostate gland. PSA circulates in free and complexed forms. When the prostate is enlarged, infected, or hosting a tumor, PSA levels generally increase. PSA is a protein originally found in semen, the fluid that carries sperm.. PSA helps to keep the semen in its liquid form.

    The photograph above shows a single normal prostate gland tubule cut in cross section. The cells lining the center, or lumen, manufacture prostate secretions including PSA. There is also a circle around the cells, called the basement membrane, which stops PSA and other secretions from entering the blood stream. That is how the prostate makes a lot of PSA but only a tiny amount normally is found in the blood.

    Abnormal Levels of PSA:

    The cells will continue to manufacture PSA if they are in locations outside the prostate. PSA levels in the blood go up if the barrier between the epithelium and the bloodstream is damaged. Three typical sources for damage are: cancer, bacterial infection, and prostate infarction or destruction of part of the prostate by damage to its blood supply. Minor elevation of the PSA levels is sometimes due to cancer, but normally a little PSA leaks from the prostate into the blood. If the prostate is enlarged then the leakage appears exaggerated. PSA can be slightly abnormal in men with enlarged prostates who do not have cancer.

    ₹600 ₹400

    PROTEIN - TOTAL
    Serum total protein, total protein , PROT tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Liver is a site of 90% of all proteins and 100% albumin synthesis.

    Functions of Plasma/Serum Proteins:

    • Transport: Plasma proteins act as carrier molecules for the transport of lipids and lipid soluble substances such as bilirubin, steroid hormones, metals, vitamins and drugs.

    • Maintenance of osmotic pressure of blood: Circulating blood volume is kept constant mainly by the colloid osmotic pressure exerted by albumin.

    • Tissue repair and growth: Metabolism of protein releases amino acids which can be used either for the synthesis of new proteins or for the generation of energy.

    • Protection: globulin fraction of plasma proteins (immunoglobulins), provide a defense mechanism against infection.

    • Maintenance of blood pH: Plasma proteins act as bases at normal pH of blood and help in the pH regulations.

    • Enzymes and coagulation factors: Most enzymes and some coagulation factors are proteins. The estimation of these, is of great importance in diseases affecting the liver as well as in other conditions.


    What does elevated level results mean:

    • Multiple Myeloma
    • Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemias
    • Collagen-vascular disease
    • Sarcoidosis
    • Dehydration
    • Arthritis
    • Chronic infections
    • Some cases of chronic liver disease, including chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis
    • Tropical diseases (eg, kala-azar, leprosy, and others)
    • Collagen disease (eg, lupus erythematosus (SLE), and other instances of chronic infection/inflammation)


    Decreased levels :

    • Malnutrition
    • Low protein diet
    • Malabsorption
    • Overhydration
    • Pregnancy
    • Chronic disease
    • Neoplasm
    • Nephrosis
    • Cirrhosis
    • Prolonged immobilization
    • Heart failure
    • Protein losing enteropathies
    • Crohn disease and chronic ulcerative colitis
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Burns
    • Severe skin disease; and other chronic diseases

    ₹300 ₹250

    RHEUMATOID FACTOR (RF)
    RA Factor , RFAC tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    RF forms part of the diagnostic and prognostic marker profile of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a systemic autoimmune disorder that is responsible for chronic symmetric arthritis of peripheral joints commonly seen in adults. Progressive increase in values of RF during the first 2 years indicates the more severe course. RF titers are often associated with difficult clinical course and generalized disease. Results from RF determinations should, however, always be evaluated in conjunction with clinical and other lab findings because low RF levels do not necessarily demonstrate the absence of rheumatoid arthritis and high RF concentration are not limited to only rheumatic diseases; additional investigations regarding existence of disease may be required.

    Elevated in
    • Infections (bronchitis, kala azar, leprosy, subacute bacterial endocarditis, syphilis, tuberculosis, viral infections).
    • Liver disease ( biliary obstruction, cirrhosis, fatty liver, granulomas, neoplasms, viral hepatitis).
    • Diabetes mellitus.
    • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
    • Osteoarthritis.
    • Paraproteinemia.
    • Raynaud's disease.
    • Sarcoidosis.
    • Sjogren's syndrome.
    • Rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Leukemia.
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Values may decrease during remission but rarely becomes negative. Progressive increase in values during the first two years indicates a more severe course.

    ₹700 ₹495

    SERUM GLOBULIN
    globulin, blood globulin , SEGB tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    UE3, the biologically active form of estriol, is classified as a weak , short acting estrogen due to its low affinity for the estrogen receptor and its high clearange. It is the weakest of the three major estrogens and is made in large quantities during pregnancy and has potential protective properties against the production of cancerous cells. It is secreted in small amount by the ovary; it is a converted estrogen. It is mainly converted in the liver from estrone (E-1) and also by a more circuitous route from estradiol (E-2).

    During pregnancy, however, the placenta is the major source of estrogen from the hormone DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) supplied from either the mother or the adrenal cortex of the fetus. Because of fetal participation in estriol formation, estriol measurements can be a sensitive indicator of placenta and / or fetal well being, Most of the estriol circulating or excreted during the third trimester of pregnancy is the joint product of fetus and placenta.Normally as the fetus develops estriol production increases resulting in a nearly threefold rise in circulating estriol levels during the final trimester. Persistently low or rapidly falling estriol levels suggest fetal distress.

    ₹350 ₹300

    SEX HORMONE BINDING GLOBULIN (SHBG)
    , SHBG tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Hepatitis A virus accounts 20-25% of hepatitis in worldwide. The biochemical changes seen in hepatitis A virus infection are: Serum bilirubin levels usually 5-10 times normal, Serum AST and ALT increased to hundreds for 1 - 3 weeks. It never leads to a chronic disease- It occurs sporadically and once infected lifelong immunity is assumed. It rarely develops into fulminant hepatitis.

    Characteristic: P

    ositive single-stranded RNA, no envelope, 27-30 nm diameter, Picornaviridae, Hepatovirus; can be cultured in cell culture Mode of transmission:

    • Person-to-person by faecal-oral route.
    • Ingestion of contaminated food (i.e., shell fish) and water.
    • HAV is excreted in a highly concentrated form in the feces for a short period of time, reaches peak level the week or two before onset of symptoms.
    Incubation Period:

    From 10-50 days, depending on dose; average 28-30 days.

    Culture:

    Virus cannot be cultured in vitro from clinical material.

    Serology:

    Anti- HAV lgM is earliest to be detected by ELISA along with the HAV total antibodies which includes the detection of all the antibodies. lgG appears in 1- 4 weeks after acute illness.

    ₹900 ₹600

    TESTOSTERONE
    , TEST tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Testosterone is the most important representative of the male sex hormones collectively called androgens. The male gonads (testes) produces testosterone, under the influence of a hormone released from the pituitary gland called luteinizing hormone (LH), and the adrenal gland produces testosterone in small amounts. In women, 50% comes from the ovaries, with the rest coming from the adrenal gland or conversion in the tissues. The signals are particularly strong in the early morning which accounts for the higher testosterone levels. By the late evening the levels of testosterone can fall by 50 percent. Testoster- one production increases rapidly at the onset of puberty, but starts to drop the nearer you get to 30 years of age. During puberty, testosterone levels are at their lifetime peak.A high intratesticular level of testosterone is an absolute prerequisite for sperm production. In men, it has been well established that mean Testosterone levels drop progressively with age. Periodically the hypothalamus releases pulses of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) into the hypophyseal circulation, which supplies the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary. The GnRH stimulates the anterior pituitary to produce and release luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). At the testicles LH and FSH interact with their target tissue (LH, Leydig cells; FSH, Sertoli cells) receptors located on the respective cell membranes. In the Leydig cells there is mobilization of steroid precursors, in particular the activation of pregnenolone synthesis from cholesterol. Pregnenolone serves as the parent compound from which testosterone is derived. An additional participant in these regulatory events is the anterior pituitary hormone prolactin, which in low concentrations acts as a potentiator of LH at the Leydig cells.Synthesized testosterone diffuses from the Leydig cells into the testicular vascular system and/or into adjacent testicle compartments containing the Sertoli cells. In the Sertoli cells, testosterone plays an essential role in the facilitation of the spermatogenesis process.

    ₹600 ₹400

    Thyroglobulin
    tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Thyroglobulin (TG) is a glycoprotein which is produced by the follicular cells of the thyroid gland upon stimulation by thyrotropin. TG plays the role of a precursor for synthesis of thyroxine and iodothyronines. It is also an important reservoir of iodine for normal physiological demands. TG undergoes metabolisn in the liver and is recycled in the thyroid glands.

    ₹900 ₹605

    THYROID STIMULATING HORMONE (TSH)
    , TSH tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    CLINICAL APPLICATION:
    • In evaluating thyroidal disorders.
    • To confirm or rule out hypo or hyperthyroidism
    • In monitoring the adequacy of the treatment.
    • Increase or decrease or withdraw various drugs used in correcting functional thyroid disorders.
    • Serum TSH is the most vital thyroid function index, in confirming or ruling out thyroid dysfunction. It is regarded as the frontline test by the thyroidologist.
    • However, 5-8% of patients with no known thyroid history has been observed to have below or above normal TSH levels thus making all three tests compulsory to draw meaningful conclusions.
    • An abnormal TSH alone is not a confirmatory evidence of thyroid hormone deficiency or excess.
    Elevated in :
    • Primary untreated hypothyroidism (increase is proportional to the severity of the disease).
    • Hypothyroidism receiving insufficient thyroid hormone replacement therapy.
    • Hashimoto's thyroiditis including those with clinical hypothyroidism.
    • Other conditions such as iodine deficiency: goiter, Iodine induced goiter or lithium treatment, External neck irradiation, Post subtotal thyroidectomy, Neonatal period.
    Decreased in :
    1. Hyperthyroidism due to :
      • a. Toxic multinodular Goiter
      • b. Autonomously functioning thyroid adenoma
      • c. Ophthalmopathy of Euthyroid Grave's disease
      • d. Treated Grave's disease
      • e. Thyroiditis
      • f. Extrathyroidal thyroid hormone source
    2. Over replacement of thyroid hormone in treatment of hypothyroidism
    3. Secondary pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidi$m.
    4. Euthyroid Sick patients
    5. Drugs effects especially high doses
    6. ₹300 ₹300

    TISSUE TRANSGLUTAMINASE - IGA (TTG)
    TTGA , TTGA tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Tissue trans-glutaminase is an enzyme known to be popularly associated with celiac disease. This is an autoimmune disorder associated with an inappropriate immune response to protein found in wheat - gluten. This inappropriate response results in inflammation of the GI tract especially small intestine, and damage the villi which line the intestinal wall.

    ₹900 ₹600

    TOTAL CHOLESTEROL
    , CHOL tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Cholesterol is an important normal body constituent, used in the structure of cell membranes, synthesis of bile acids, and synthesis of steroid hormones. Since cholesterol is water insoluble, most serum (the noncellular portion of blood) cholesterol is carried by lipoproteins (chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL). The most abundant steroid in animal tissue, cholesterol is the precursor to major steroid hormones such as Cortisol, DHEA, testesterone and estrogen. The body synthesizes 60-80% of its cholesterol, primarily in the liver and intestine, and derives the remainder from the diet. Although elevated cholesterol is linked to increased atherosclerosis, cholesterol also functions as a natural protector of cell membranes due to its free radical scavenging activity. Widely dispersed in cell membranes throughout the body, unoxidizec cholesterol protects against cancer and other free radical induced disease. Total Cholesterol serves as a marker for both cardiovascular disease and oxidative stress.

    The role of serum cholesterol in the development and progression of heart disease has been well established by research over the last 40 years. The relationship between cholesterol levels and CVD appears to be a continuum, i.e., the higher the serum cholesterol the more frequently associated heart disease is found. Elevated cholesterol levels have also been specifically linked with increased heterogeneous carotid plaque and development of CVD.Although total cholesterol can provide a very general assessment of cardiovascular health, additional consideration of other lipid markers is crucial for accurate investigation of coronary disease, particularly for people over age 60.

    Elevated cholesterol levels may be caused by:

    • biliary cirrhosis.
    • familial hyperlipidemias.
    • high-cholesterol diet.
    • hypothyroidism.
    • nephrotic syndrome.
    • uncontrolled diabetes.

    Low cholesterol levels may be caused by:

    • hyperthyroidism
    • liver disease.
    • malabsorption (inadequate absorption of nutrients from the intestinal tract).
    • malnutrition.
    • pernicious anemia.
    • sepsis.

    Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:

    • arteriosclerosis of the extremities
    • familial dysbetalipoproteinemia
    • familial hypercholesterolemia
    • hypothyroidism; primary
    • hypothyroidism; secondary
    • Type I or Type II diabetes
    • primary biliary cirrhosis

    ₹400 ₹360

    TOTAL THYROXINE (T4)
    , T4 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Thyroxine (T4) is a hormone synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland and plays an important role in regulating metabolism. Secretion into the circulation is in response to the pituitary hormone TSH and is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism involving the Thyroid gland, pituitary gland and the hypothalamus.

    In the circulation, 99.95%of T4 is reversibly bound to transport proteins, primarily thyroxine binding globulin (TBG) and to a lesser extent albumin and thyroxine binding prealbumin(TBPA). The remaining T4 is not bound to transport proteins but is free in the circulation. This unbound fraction or free T4 (FT4) is both metabolically active and a precursor to triiodothyronine (T3).Whenever evaluation of T3, T4, TSH fails to give a clear diagnostic picture, it is advisable to do the FT3, FT4 tests.Especially when the patient is on treatment or pregnant, free hormones give a better picture of thyroid status.

    Elevated In:

    Grave's Disease:
    • Toxic Multinodular Goiter
    • Toxic adenoma
    Transient Hyperthyroidism:
    • Subacute thyroiditis,
    • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
    Rarely:
    • Hyperthyroid secondary to pituitary disease
    • Thyroid Cancer
    • Amiodarone
    Decreased Thyroxine or Free T4:
    • Primary Hypothyroidism
    • Hashimoto's Thyroiditis
    • Idiopathic Myxedema
    • Preyious treatment of Hyperthyroidism
    • Sub acute thyroiditis
    • Prior neck radiotherapy
    • Iodine deficiency or excess
    • Congenital
    • Medications
    • a. Lithium
    • b. Sulfonamides
    • c. Phenylbutazone
    • d. Amiodarone
    • e. Thiourea
    Secondary Hypothyroidism
    • Pituitary dysfunction
    Tertiary Hypothyroidism
    • Hypothalamic disease Very rare Tissue resistance to Thyroid hormone

    ₹300 ₹250

    TOTAL TRIIODOTHYRONINE (T3)
    , T3 tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Whenever the thyroid function tests i.e. T3, T4, TSH fail to give a diagnostic conclusion, a combination of FT3 and FT4 are requested by the physician.Similar to T4, T3 also circulates in the blood bound to the binding proteins, thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG), thyroxine-binding prealbumin (TBPA) and albumin. The free T3 concentration, which represents about 0.3% of the total circulating hormone concentration, is maintained independently of changes of binding protein levels. The determination of free T3 concentration is a true measure of thyroid status and of cellular metabolism. The free T3 concentration is normal in euthyroid patients with abnormal binding protein levels. The changes in levels of binding proteins are found in certain congenital abnormalities and during pregnancy, use of androgens oral estrogens or contraceptives. Hyperthyroidism is generally associated with an increase of the free T3 concentration. Assessment of this value is of interest in some cases of T3 thyrotoxicosis when free T4 and TSH concentrations in the serum may be within the normal range.A decreased free T3 concentration indicates hypothyroidism. In certain severe non-thyroidal diseases, decreased levels may also be found.Determination of the free T3 concentration allows the follow-up of patients under replacement or suppressive therapy using T3.

    ₹300 ₹250

    TOXO GONDII - IgG
    , TX_G tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can transmit via rodents, cats, child birth etc. Toxoplasma gondii is a serious zoonotic parasite that can cause serious problems in unborn children and babies. Congenital infection occurs when tachyzoites are transmitted across the placenta from mother to child.

    Effects of an infection by Toxoplasma can be listed as follows:
    • Abortion
    • The vision and the nervous system of the foetus can also be affected
    • Damage is dependent on the age of gestation i.e., maximum damage during the first 2 trimesters (hydrocephalus, mental and psychomotor retardation, blindness, and cerebral keratifications)
    SYMPTOMS:
    • Generally asymptomatic and non specific, sometimes mildly symptomatic.
    • Symptoms like anemia, splenomegaly, headache, and sore-throat.
    • Jaundice, fever, hepatomegaly, adenopathy, vomiting, asthma.

    ₹600 ₹400

    TOXO GONDII - IgM
    , TX_M tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that can transmit via rodents, cats, child birth etc. Toxoplasma gondii is a serious zoonotic parasite that can cause serious problems in unborn children and babies. Congenital infection occurs when tachyzoites are transmitted across the placenta from mother to child.

    Effects of an infection by Toxoplasma can be listed as follows:
    • Abortion
    • The vision and the nervous system of the foetus can also be affected
    • Damage is dependent on the age of gestation i.e., maximum damage during the first 2 trimesters (hydrocephalus, mental and psychomotor retardation, blindness, and cerebral keratifications)
    SYMPTOMS:
    • Generally asymptomatic and non specific, sometimes mildly symptomatic.
    • Symptoms like anemia, splenomegaly, headache, and sore-throat.
    • Jaundice, fever, hepatomegaly, adenopathy, vomiting, asthma.

    ₹600 ₹400

    TRIGLYCERIDES
    , TRIG tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Triglycerides are a storage form of lipid found in blood. High levels of triglyceride are considered as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease. Commonly seen in cases of diabetes, pancreatitis, hyperthyroidism and hypoproteinemias. If an elevated triglyceride is observed, the test values should be reconfirmed before any treatment is suggested.Triglycerides are often measured as a reflection of fat (lipid) ingestion and metabolism, or as part of an evaluation of coronary risk factors.Triglycerides comprise the largest proportion of fats (lipids) in the diet, in the adipose tissue, and in the blood. Immediately after a meal, triglycerides appear in the blood as the major constituent of chylomicrons.

    Under normal circumstances, triglycerides within chylomicrons are stripped of fatty acids as they pass through various tissues (especially adipose and skeletal muscle). The chylomicron remnant is then taken up by the liver so that chylomicrons disappear from the blood within 2 or 3 hours.The remaining triglycerides, plus additional triglycerides synthesized within the liver, are then re-packaged as VLDL and secreted into the blood from the liver.Triglycerides are a storage form of energy. They are stored in adipose tissue and muscle, and gradually released and metabolized between meals according to the enerov needs of the body.

    What abnormal results mean:

    Elevated levels:
    High triglyceride levels may be associated with a higher risk for heart disease and stroke. This is especially true because people with high triglycerides often have other conditions, such as diabetes and obesity, that increase the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease.

  • Cirrhosis
  • Familial hyperlipoproteinemia (rare)
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Low protein in diet and high carbohydrates
  • Poorly controlled diabetes
  • Nephrotic syndrome
  • Pancreatitis


  • Decreased levels:
  • Malabsorption syndrome (inadequate absorption of nutrients in the intestinal tract)
  • Malnutrition
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Low fat diet


  • Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
  • Chylomicronemia syndrome
  • Familial combined hyperlipidemia
  • Familial dysbetalipoproteinemia
  • Familial hypertriglyceridemia
  • Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency
  • Hyperlipidemia acquired
  • Noninsulin-dependent diabetes (NIDD}
  • Stroke secondary to atherosclerosis
  • Stroke secondary to carotid stenosis
  • ₹250 ₹200

    URIC ACID
    , URIC tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Urea is the chief nitrogenous waste of mammals. Humans also excrete a second nitrogenous waste, uric acid. It is the product of nucleic acid, not protein, metobolism. It is produced within peroxisomes.Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism (purines are building blocks of RNAand DNA). Most uric acid produced in the body is excreted by the kidneys. An overproduction of uric acid occurs when there is excessive breakdown of cells, which contain purines, or the inability of the kidneys to excrete uric acid.

    Uric acid is only slightly soluble in water and may precipitate out of solution contributing to the formation of kidney stones. Uric acid may also form needlelike crystals in one or more joints producing the excruciating pain of gout.Curiously, our kidneys reclaim most of th uric acid filtered at the glomeruli.Uric acid is a potent antioxidant and thus can protect cells from DNA damage.Humans and apes are susceptible to gout. All other mammals have an enzyme for breaking uric acid down into a soluble product. These animals convert the waste products of protein metabolism - as well as nucleic acid metabolism - into uric acid.Because of its low solubility in water, these animals are able to eliminate waste nitrogen with little loss of water.

    Elevated levels:
    • Hyperuricemia.
    • Gout.
    • Acidosis.
    • Alcoholism.
    • Diabetes.
    • Hypoparathyroidism.
    • Lead poisoning.
    • Leukemia.
    • Nephrolithiasis.
    • Polycythemia vera.
    • Renal failure.
    • Toxemia of pregnancy.
    • Purine-rich diet.
    • Severe exercise.
    Decreased levels:
    • Fanconi's syndrome.
    • Wilson's disease.
    • SIADH.
    • Low purine diet
    Additional conditions under which the test may be performed:
    • Chronic gouty arthritis
    • Injury of the kidney and ureter

    ₹300 ₹250

    URINARY MICROALBUMIN
    UALB tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Normally, the kidneys work to filter waste products, water, and other chemicals from the blood and send them to the bladder where they are excreted in the form of urine. In the earliest stage of diabetic nephropathy, abnormally large amounts of blood flow through the nephrons, the tiny filters within the kidneys. This condition is known as hyper filtration. Due to hyper filtration there is leakage of proteins in the urine from the kidney cells. One such protein is albumin. Proteinuria is the presence of protein in the urine. Most proteins are too large to pass through the glomeruli into the urine. But when the glomeruli are damaged, proteins of various sizes pass through them and are excreted in the urine. This will create a condition called microalbuminuria.

    Microalbuminuria is defined as the excretion of 30-300 mg of albumin per day in the urine. It is not a different form of albumin, just a very small amount of albumin. Because the albumin molecule is relatively small, it is often among the first protein to enter the urine after the kidney is damaged. Therefore, even minor kidney dysfunction is detectable with proper diagnosis of small quantities of albumin.

    ₹545 ₹460

    VITAMIN A
    , VITA tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin that can convert cartenoids into vitamin A. It is essential to the retina to form retinal a light absorbing molecule which allows for low-light and color vision. It also acts as a growth factor for skin and other cells and plays a role in supporting the functions of the immune system. The body converts vitamin A found in foods to retinol retinal and retinoic acid.

    ₹2000 ₹1150

    VITAMIN B-12
    , VITB tests included, Lab : Thyrocare.

    Vitamin B12 is a member of the vitamin B complex. It contains cobalt, and so is also known as cobalamin. It is exclusively synthesised by bacteria and is found primarily in meat, eggs and dairy products.Fermented soya products, seaweeds, and algae suchasspirulina have all been suggested as containing significant B12. Vitamin B12can be stored in small amounts by the body. Total body store is 2-5mg in adults. Around 80% of this is stored in the liver. Vitamin B12 is excreted in the bile and is effectively reabsorbed. This is known as enterohepatic circulation.

    Vitamin B12 is necessary for the synthesis of red blood cells, the maintenance of the nervous system, and growth and development in children. Deficiency can cause anaemia. Vitamin B12 neuropathy, involving the degeneration of nerve fibres and irreversible neurological damage, can also occur.

    B12 is necessary for the rapid synthesis DNA during cell division. This is especially important in tissues where cells are dividing rapiddly, particularly the bone marrow tissues responsible for red blood cell formation. If B12 deficiency occurs, DNA production is disrupted and abnormal cells called megaloblasts occur. This results in anaemia.

    B12 is also important in maintaining the nervous system. Nerves are surrounded by an insulating fatty sheath comprised of a complex protein called myelin. B12 plays a vital role in the metabolism of fatty acids essential for the maintenance of myelin. Prolonged B12 deficinecy can lead to nerve degeneration and irreversible neurological damage.

    ₹650 ₹460